For an intermediate player, s/he should be able to calculate at least 2 to 3 moves. It's like attack-defend-win, or attack-defend-attack-defend-win. Here win means win a piece or a game. In step 2 classes, we teach basic tactics and 2-move checkmate, which use all these thinking approaches. Sometimes some simple variations are also present. This is much more difficult than one move, because s/he has to keep track of unplayed moves in his/her mind. It's like calculating 2-digit multiplication by heart. Calculating 2-3 moves is a little bit easier than multiplication because it's easier to visualize a piece on board than visualize a number (which itself is abstract). Anyway, the visualization training is definitely helpful for academic learning.
For an advanced player, s/he should be able to calculate 4 to 6 moves in most positions. If it's forced moves (checkmate series) with simple variations, s/he should be able to calculate as most as 10-15 moves. To reach that level, some purposeful training is required.
Not all positions require such deep calculation, but having the ability is helpful. That's the reason why computers nowadays are better than human players. We as human only calculate reasonable moves, while computers can go brutal force if they are powerful enough. We teach deep calculation in our tactics workshops and Step 3 and Step 4 classes.